Pathological examination(Biopsy)



Biopsy is a testing procedure used in the field of pathology to evaluate abnormal cellular or tissue changes.


Biopsy cell collection methods vary depending on the object and purpose of collection, but here are some common biopsy cell collection methods

・Needle Biopsy:

A special needle is inserted into a tumor or abnormal area to collect a sample of tissue. This needle is usually placed precisely under ultrasound, CT, or x-ray guidance. After the needle is inserted, a tissue sample is collected and the needle is removed.

Uses: Needle biopsies are used in lung, breast, and liver biopsies.

・Surgical Biopsy:

Surgical biopsy is a biopsy procedure that involves a surgical procedure. The patient is anesthetized in the operating room where the surgeon accesses the abnormal area and collects a sample of tissue. After surgery, the collected tissue is evaluated pathologically.

Uses: Surgical biopsies are used for biopsies of large tumors and deep tissue. It is commonly used to diagnose cancer and evaluate tissue pathology.

・Endoscopic Biopsy:

Endoscopic biopsy uses an endoscope to access the abnormal area and collect a sample of tissue. A biopsy instrument is inserted through the endoscope to collect the tissue sample.

Uses: Endoscopic biopsy is used for gastric endoscopic biopsy, colonoscopic biopsy, laryngoscopic biopsy, etc.

・Skin Biopsy:

A skin biopsy is a method of obtaining a sample of tissue from an abnormal area of the skin. Usually local anesthesia is used and a small cut is made on the surface of the skin to obtain the tissue.

Uses: Skin biopsies are used to evaluate skin cancer, rashes, and skin pathology.


The main purpose of a biopsy is to evaluate the pathology of the tissue. This allows for a detailed analysis of cellular morphology, structure, lesion type, and pathology. Biopsies are used to diagnose cancer, evaluate inflammatory diseases, and reveal the pathological characteristics of tissues.

What is the difference between cytology and cytodiagnosis?

Whereas cytology focuses on the cell surface and evaluates cell morphology and nuclear characteristics, biopsy evaluates the tissue as a whole, the arrangement of cells, and the pathological characteristics of the tissue.