Gynecologic Cancer(Cervical cancer)

What is cervical cancer?


Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cervix (the area between the uterus and vagina) in women.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, sexual activity, and smoking are factors that increase the risk of cervical cancer.

In its early stages, cervical cancer produces few symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms such as abnormal bleeding, abnormal vaginal discharge, back pain, pelvic pain, urinary problems, and constipation may occur.

Tests for cervical cancer include examination of cervical cells (cervical cytology, Pap smear), HPV test, cervical biopsy, ultrasound, MRI, and CT scan. Cervical cancer may be prevented by the HPV vaccine. In addition, regular screening (Pap smear test and HPV test) is recommended.

Example of proposed treatment for cervical cancer


Early-stage cervical cancer is treated with a hysterectomy (partial or total removal of the cervix) or lymph node dissection (partial or total removal of nearby lymph nodes)

Radiation therapy:

A treatment that uses high-energy X-rays or protons to destroy cancer cells. It is performed when cervical cancer cells have spread, when surgery is not appropriate, or when the cancer has recurred.


Used to attack cancer cells and inhibit their growth. It is sometimes combined with radiation therapy. It is also used in cases of advanced or metastatic cervical cancer.