Urologic cancers(Bladder cancer)

What is bladder cancer?


Bladder cancer is a type of cancer that develops from cells inside the bladder. The bladder is a pouch-like organ in the lower part of the abdomen that temporarily stores urine.

There are several types of bladder cancer, the most common being transitional epithelial cancer.

Transitional epithelial carcinomas arise from cells lining the inner wall of the bladder. The majority of bladder cancers fall into this type.

Other types: Leiomyosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, etc., but these are relatively rare.

Causes and risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking, chemical exposure (e.g., chemicals used in the dye, rubber, and leather industries), long-term bladder infection or inflammation, congenital bladder abnormalities, advanced age, and being male.

Symptoms of bladder cancer include bloody urine (clear or fine), frequent urination, pain during urination, and back or bone pain.

Bladder cancer is diagnosed by urinalysis, cystoscopy (cystoscopy), and imaging tests (CT, MRI, etc.).

Example of proposed treatment for bladder cancer

1. Surgery:

Trans Urethral Resection of Bladder Tumor (TURBT):

Surgery used for early-stage bladder cancer. Using a cystoscope, the tumor is removed from the bladder wall. Usually a small amount of normal tissue surrounding the tumor is also removed.

Partial cystectomy:

Surgery to remove part of the bladder. It is performed when the disease is not advanced but TURBT alone is not sufficient.

Total bladder resection:

Surgery to remove the entire bladder. It is used to treat advanced bladder cancer. After this surgery, the method of urinary drainage must be changed.

2. Radiation therapy:

A procedure that uses radiation to destroy or damage cancer cells. Usually used before or after surgery or when surgery is difficult.

3. Chemotherapy:

Treatment that uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be administered systemically (e.g., intravenously) or directly (e.g., intravesical infusion).

4. Targeted therapy:

A treatment that uses drugs that act on specific cancer cell molecules or genes. This allows the cancer cells to be attacked with minimal impact on normal cells.

5. Reconstructive surgery:

Surgery to reconstruct the method of urinary drainage after total cystectomy. Several methods are available, selected according to the patient’s condition and desires.

These treatments may be administered alone or in combination.