Skin cancer(Malignant melanoma)

What is malignant melanoma (melanoma)?


Malignant melanoma (melanoma) is a malignant skin tumor arising from melanocytes, the cells that give skin its color. Melanocytes are present not only in the skin, but also in mucous membranes and other sites such as the eyes, inner ear, nose, mouth, urethra, rectum, and vagina, so malignant melanoma can occur in these locations as well.

Malignant melanoma is characterized by the initial symptoms of a new black lump or a change in an existing mole (change in size, color, or shape).

It progresses quickly, and early detection and treatment is extremely important.

Factors that may contribute to the development of malignant melanoma include excessive exposure to sunlight (ultraviolet light), skin type (especially types that tan easily and do not recover easily from sunburn), family history and genetic factors, immunosuppressed conditions and prior cancer treatment.

Diagnosis is made by visual examination of the skin, dermatoscopy (magnification of the skin), and histological examination (biopsy). Early detection is important, but prevention through daily use of sunscreen and regular skin examinations is also important.

An example of a proposed treatment for malignant melanoma

1. surgery

Local excision:

Early malignant melanoma is surgically removed along with the surrounding normal skin. The surrounding healthy skin is usually removed with a certain margin. Lymphadenectomy: If the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes, the associated lymph nodes may also be removed.

2. Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy may be used when complete resection by surgery is difficult or when metastasis to lymph nodes or other sites is suspected.

3. Chemotherapy

This treatment uses chemical substances to kill or suppress the growth of cancer cells. It may be selected when malignant melanoma has spread to other parts of the body or when the risk of recurrence is high.

4. Targeted therapy

using drugs that target malignant melanoma cells with specific mutations, may be suggested.